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Python and GraphQL

Transactions

Transactions are captured as web transactions which are named based on the GraphQL operations executed. The following details are used to group unique query representations: operation type, operation name, and the deepest unique path.

The raw representation of a transaction looks like the following: {operation_type}/{operation_name}/{deepest_unique_path}

Using this query example:

query {
libraries {
books {
title
author {
name
}
}
}
}

The transaction on New Relic One will ultimately display similar to this: query/<anonymous>/libraries.books

Details

Operation type

Indicates if the operation was a query or a mutation.

Operation name

The operation name when provided, or <anonymous>.

query { libraries } would have a blank operation name because a name was not provided.

A query with a name such as query GetLibraries { libraries } would use the operation name 'GetLibraries'.

Deepest unique path

The deepest path included in the selection set of a query where only one field was selected at each level. Since operation names may be reused, this helps further determine uniqueness of a given operation.

We use the deepest unique path (instead of deepest path like prior) to avoid making arbitrary decisions in naming, which may imply or hide details of what could cause slowness for an application.

For the query:

query {
libraries {
branch
booksInStock {
isbn,
title,
author
}
magazinesInStock {
issue,
title
}
}
}

We will select a deepest unique path of 'libraries' as we select multiple fields beyond that point. Any resolver executed beyond that point may contribute to the performance characteristics of the transaction.

If the query were to only select one field per resolver, we select the full path as each selection set is unique.

The query:

query {
libraries {
booksInStock {
title
}
}
}

Will result in the deepest unique path: 'libraries.booksInStock.title'.

id and __typename fields are automatically excluded from the naming decision.

For example, a sub graph query:

query {
libraries {
branch
__typename
id
}
}

Would result in the deepest unique path of: libraries.branch.

Union types and inline fragments

For Union types which utilize Inline Fragments, the transaction name will use < ... > brackets to indicate the underlying selected field for the Union query if only one result is specified in the query.

For the following schema:

union SearchResult = Book | Author
type Book {
title: String!
}
type Author {
name: String!
}
type Query {
search(contains: String): [SearchResult!]
}

and the following query:

query example {
search(contains: "author") {
__typename
... on Author {
name
}
}
}

Would result in the following transaction name:

query/example/search<Author>.name

However, if the query is returning both Book and Author:

query example {
search(contains: "author") {
__typename
... on Author {
name
}
... on Book {
title
}
}
}

The resulting transaction name would be query/example/search

Naming on error

Errors validating or parsing a GraphQL request can impact transaction naming.

Exceptions

If an error is encountered in either the middleware or the resolver, the transaction name will simply be the name of the middleware or resolver in which the failure occured.

Validation errors

If a requested operation was able to parse but not able to validate, the following will be generated as the transaction name:

In GraphQL2: graphql.validation.validation:validate In GraphQL3: graphql.validation.validate.validate

Parsing errors

If a requested operation cannot be parsed, the following will be generated as the transaction name:

graphql.language.parser:parse

Metrics

The Python agent reports GraphQL field resolver and operation metrics to allow you to understand and analyze long term trends.

Operation metrics

Operation metrics are reported using the following format: GraphQL/operation/GraphQL/{operation_type}/{operation_name}/{deepest_unique_path}

Operation Type: Specifies the type of operation to be executed. This will either be query, mutation, or <unknown> if the operation type cannot be determined.

Operation Name: The name of the operation if provided or <anonymous>.

Deepest Unique Path: The deepest path included in the selection set of a query where only one field is selected at each level. This helps further determine uniqueness of a given operation since operation names can be reused.

Field resolver metrics

Field resolver metrics are reported using the following format: GraphQL/resolve/GraphQL/{field_name}

Resolver metrics capture the duration spent resolving a particular piece of requested GraphQL data. These can be used to find specific resolvers that may contribute to slowing down incoming queries.

Spans and attributes

Spans are captured for GraphQL operations, field resolutions, and additional work that occurs as part of a field resolution such as making a query to a database.

Operation spans include the operation type, operation name, and deepest unique path. These represent the individual duration and attributes of a specific invocation within a transaction or trace.

GraphQL/operation/GraphQL/{operation_type}/{operation_name}/{deepest_unique_path}

Operation span attributes

Name

Description

graphql.operation.type

Query or mutation

graphql.operation.name

Name given to the operation or < anonymous >

graphql.operation.query

Name given to the query or < anonymous >

Field resolver spans

Resolver spans leverage the resolution path of the individual field to best differentiate within a given trace or transaction. For example, libraries.books might be used instead of just books. These represent the individual duration and attributes of a specific field being resolved as a part of the GraphQL operation.

GraphQL/resolve/GraphQL/{path}

Resolver span attributes

Name

Description

graphql.field.name

Name of the resolved field

graphql.field.returnType

Return type of the resolved field (for example, Book!, [String])

graphql.field.parentType

Type of the parent of this field (for example, [Book])

graphql.field.path

Full resolver path of the field (for example, libraries.books)

For more help

If you need more help, check out these support and learning resources:

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